We investigate joint shape, musculature, and associated biomechanics as they change due to injury or disease and how we can improve interventions to preserve or restore joint health.
Our work seeks to link outward manifestations of pathology (e.g. functional deficits) with internal abnormalities (e.g. bone deformity, muscle dysfunction). We study how abnormal joint shape or altered muscles affect movement patterns and how these factors are collectively associated with osteoarthritis (OA) development. Using in-vivo motion capture technology, we measure movement biomechanics and how they are affected by OA or pre-cursors such as hip dysplasia. We combine in-vivo biomechanics with medical imaging (e.g. CT and MRI) to make subject-specific musculoskeletal models that can quantify muscle forces that are not measurable in the laboratory. By applying these tools in interdisciplinary teams, we seek to improve surgical interventions, inform targeted rehabilitation, and enhance quality of life for people facing OA.
|Brecca Gaffney, PhD
Postdoctoral Research Scholar
|Ke Song, MS
PhD Candidate, Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science
|Molly Shepherd, BS
PhD Student, Movement Science
Research Assistant, BS Student – Biomedical Engineering
Elizabeth Saliba (Independent Study Student, Mechanical Engineering)
Paige Burnet (Research Assistant, BS Student – Biomedical Engineering)
Lauren Westen, BA (DPT Student and Research Assistant)
Jacqueline Foody, BS (Research Assistant, BS Student-Mechanical Engineering)
Julia Blumkaitis, BS (Research Technician)
Carly Krull (BS Student-Biomedical Engineering)
Hannah Steele (DPT Student and Research Assistant)
Current Research Studies
Bone-Muscle Relationships in Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip
Funding Source: NIH, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Skin Diseases (K01AR072072)
This project focuses on muscle performance and joint mechanics in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). DDH is a major etiological factor in hip OA, especially in adolescents and young adults. The common paradigm of DDH mechanics is that bony deformities of the acetabulum (hip socket) and femur fail to provide a congruent surface for joint loading, which instigates metabolic and mechanical injury leading to OA. We are investigating a revised model of DDH that incorporates abnormalities in the surrounding muscle geometry, movement patterns, and loading. Our studies are providing new knowledge about how relationships between abnormal bone and muscle may be important factors in DDH symptomatology and joint damage.
Muscle Performance after Periacetabular Osteotomy for DDH
Funding: NIH, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (P30AR057235)
Hip preservation surgeries for DDH, like the periacetabular osteotomy, can relieve pain for many patients, but many others development additional symptoms and long-term results do not demonstrate an effective offset of OA. In this project, we quantify the effect of hip preservation surgeries on muscle performance. By quantifying muscle atrophy, mechanical moment arms, neuromuscular activation patterns, joint reaction forces, functional strength, and movement patterns we hope to clarify why some patients respond well to surgery and others do not, as well as inform optimized surgical techniques and post-surgical rehabilitation.
Statistical Shape Modeling of the Femurs in DDH
Funding Source: Washington University
DDH diagnosis and treatment often focuses on the shallow acetabulum. However, it is common for the femur of dysplastic hips to also have bony deformities. These deformities might have a strong influence on loading and damage within the hip, but the optimal surgical correction for femurs in cases of DDH is unknown. While 2D measures of femoral deformity exist, an objective 3D measurement of femoral shape variations in dysplastic hips has not been established. We are using statistical shape modeling to describe 3D morphological variations among femurs in patients with DDH, which can then assist surgeons treating patients with challenging cases of dysplasia.
Quantification of Bone Shape Variability, Whole-Body and Joint level Biomechanics of Hip Dysplasia
Funding Source: L’Oréal USA For Women in Science Fellowship
This project investigates neuromuscular control in patients with DDH. An innovative combination of surface electromyography, motion capture, and musculoskeletal modeling is providing significant empirical evidence regarding factors beyond bony abnormalities that contribute to detrimental loading within the dysplastic hip. This study is also investigating loading on other joints throughout the body (e.g. low-back) during biomechanically challenging tasks. Understanding how neuromuscular control patterns contribute to loading patterns of the hip and low back will help improve the efficacy of rehabilitation for these young individuals trying to maintain a long-term active lifestyle.
The Biomechanical Consequences of Femoral Version Deformity and Surgical Correction in Patients with Hip Dysplasia
Funding Source: American Society of Biomechanics Junior Faculty Research Award
Two major contributors to hip dysplasia biomechanics remain vastly understudied – muscle forces and the femur. This Junior Faculty Research Award investigates how femoral deformities, and subsequent surgical correction, influence muscle-driven forces in patients with hip dysplasia during common ambulatory activities. Study results will help inform more optimal treatment for individual patients through consideration of bone (acetabulum and femur) and muscle mechanics together.
Effects of Simulated Interventions on Hip Articular Cartilage Loading in Patients with Femoroacetabular Impingement and Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip
Funding Source: NIH NIAMS F32 AR075349
The objective of this research is to develop a musculoskeletal contact model to determine the influence of simulated surgical and non-surgical interventions on intra-articular hip cartilage loading patterns. The findings of this proposal will be crucial for understanding of the specific effect of interventions on multi-scale hip pathologies.